Writing Integrated問題(Sample Questionsから)

2009-12-02

CATEGORIES Sample Questions, Writing対策by.Katsurayama5 Comments

以下、Sample QuestionsWriting Integrated TaskReading PassageLecture Transcriptです。

 

Sample Questionsに関してはこちら

 

これを読むと、TOEFL iBT本試験のWriting Integrated Taskの傾向が分かります。

(そして市販教材のほとんどの問題がこの形式になっていないと分かるはずです)

どのような傾向であるかは、本試験を1回受ければわかるため、ご存知の方は多いでしょう。

 

説明は後日の投稿で。

まずは自分で読んで考えてください。決して複雑なものではありません。

 

[Reading Passage]

 

Critics say that current voting systems used in the United States are inefficient and often lead to the inaccurate counting of votes. Miscounts can be especially damaging if an election is closely contested. Those critics would like the traditional systems to be replaced with far more efficient and trustworthy computerized voting systems.

 

In traditional voting, one major source of inaccuracy is that people accidentally vote for the wrong candidate. Voters usually have to find the name of their candidate on a large sheet of paper containing many names—the ballot—and make a small mark next to that name. People with poor eyesight can easily mark the wrong name. The computerized voting machines have an easy-to-use touch-screen technology:  to cast a vote, a voter needs only to touch the candidate’s name on the screen to record a vote for that candidate; voters can even have the computer magnify the name for easier viewing.

 

Another major problem with old voting systems is that they rely heavily on people to count the votes. Officials must often count up the votes one by one, going through every ballot and recording the vote. Since they have to deal with thousands of ballots, it is almost inevitable that they will make mistakes. If an error is detected, a long and expensive recount has to take place. In contrast, computerized systems remove the possibility of human error, since all the vote counting is done quickly and automatically by the computers.

 

Finally some people say it is too risky to implement complicated voting technology nationwide. But without giving it a thought, governments and individuals alike trust other complex computer technology every day to be perfectly accurate in banking transactions as well as in the communication of highly sensitive information.

 

[Lecture Transcript]

(Narrator)

Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

 

(Female Professor)

While traditional voting systems have some problems, it’s doubtful that computerized voting will make the situation any better.

 

Computerized voting may seem easy for people who are used to computers. But what about people who aren’t? People who can’t afford computers, people who don’t use them on a regular basis—these people will have trouble using computerized voting machines. These voters can easily cast the wrong vote or be discouraged from voting altogether because of fear of technology.

 

Furthermore, its true that humans make mistakes when they count up ballots by hand. But are we sure that computers will do a better job? After all, computers are programmed by humans, so “human error” can show up in mistakes in their programs. And the errors caused by these defective programs may be far more serious. The worst a human official can do is miss a few ballots. But an error in a computer program can result in thousands of votes being miscounted or even permanently removed from the record. And in many voting systems, there is no physical record of the votes, so a computer recount in the case of a suspected error is impossible!

 

As for our trust of computer technology for banking and communications, remember one thing:  these systems are used daily and they are used heavily. They didn’t work flawlessly when they were first introduced. They had to be improved on and improved on until they got as reliable as they are today. But voting happens only once every two years nationally in the United States and not much more than twice a year in many local areas. This is hardly sufficient for us to develop confidence that computerized voting can be fully trusted.

 

Question:

Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they oppose specific points made in the reading passage.

コメント
  1. maru より:

    お疲れ様です。いつも役に立つ学習情報ありがとうございます。
    こちら音声ファイルはUpされる予定でしょうか。して頂けると大変助かります。
    よろしくお願いします。

  2. Katsurayama より:

    maruさん

    了解しました。
    音声ファイルは近々ダウンロードできるようにします。

    Katsurayama

  3. yoo より:

    葛山先生

    sampleの問題、自分でもやってみました。
    TOEFL samplerがうまく起動せず、仕方が無いのでProgram Fileから直接Lectureを聞きました。
    *ところで上記のうまく起動できないという内容ですが、起動すると「スクリーンが大きいので、windowsのstandard settingに戻せ」といった意味のポップアップが出、そのまま続けても音が出ない症状です。PCのOSはvistaですが、うまくsamplerを起動する方法がありますでしょうか?もしご存知でしたら、こちらもご教示いただけますと幸甚です。

    「オフィシャルガイドの模範解答があるIntegrated Taskの問題は本試験の傾向と異なります。」と先生がおっしゃっていた意味が分かりました。5点のサンプルも大変参考になります。こちらを参考にしてみます。ありがとうございました。

  4. Katsurayama より:

    yooさん

    「スクリーンが大きいので、windowsのstandard settingに戻せ」という表示はVistaの場合出るようです。
    そのままcontinueしても、音声が出ません。
    XPの方は問題ないのですが。
    プログラムファイルの音声はバラバラになっているので、是非ウェブトフル無料体験のフォルダーから音声をダウンロードして活用してください。

    Katsurayama

  5. yoo より:

    葛山先生

    ご返信ありがとうございました。
    やはりvistaではどうにもならないのですね。

    先生の作成された音声ファイルをダウンロードさせていただきます。

    ありがとうございました。

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